OG Test 4 - Reading 3

Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage.

This passage is adapted from Emily Anthes, Frankenstein's Cat.©2013 by Emily Anthes.
When scientists first learned how to edit the
genomes of animals, they began to imagine all the
ways they could use this new power.Creating
Linebrightly colored novelty pets was not a high priority.
5Instead,most researchers envisioned far more
consequential applications, hoping to create
genetically engineered animals that saved human
lives.One enterprise is now delivering on this dream.
Welcome to the world of" pharming,"in which
10simple genetic tweaks turn animals into living
pharmaceutical factories.
Many of the proteins that our cells crank out
naturally make for good medicine. Our bodies` own
enzymes, hormones, clotting factors, and antibodies
15are commonly used to treat cancer, diabetes,
autoimmune diseases, and more.The trouble is that
it`s difficult and expensive to make these compounds
on an industrial scale,and as a result,patients can
face shortages of the medicines they need. Dairy
20animals, on the other hand, are expert protein
producers, their udders swollen with milk. So the
creation of the first transgenic animals-first mice,
then other species-in the 1980s gave scientists an
idea: What if they put the gene for a human antibody
25or enzyme into a cow, goat, or sheep? If they put the
gene in just the right place, under the control of the
right molecular switch, maybe they could engineer
animals that produced healing human proteins in
their milk.Then doctors could collect medicine by
30the bucketful.
Throughout the 1980s and`90s,studies provided
proof of principle, as scientists created transgenic
mice, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, and rabbits that did in
fact make therapeutic compounds in their milk.
35At first,this work was merely gee-whiz,scientific
geekery,lab-bound thought experiments come true.
That all changed with ATryn,a drug produced by the
Massachusetts firm GTC Biotherapeutics.ATryn is
antithrombin, an anticoagulant that can be used to
40prevent life-threatening blood clots.The compound,
made by our liver cells,plays a key role in keeping
our bodies clot-free.It acts as a molecular bouncer,
sidling up to clot-forming compounds and escorting
them out of the bloodstream.But as many as 1 in
452,000 Americans are born with a genetic mutation
that prevents them from making antithrombin.
These patients are prone to clots, especially in their
legs and lungs, and they are at elevated risk of
suffering from fatal complications during surgery
50and childbirth.Supplemental antithrombin can
reduce this risk, and GTC decided to try to
manufacture the compound using genetically
engineered goats.
To create its special herd of goats,GTC used
55microinjection,the same technique that produced
GloFish and AquAdvantage salmon.The company`s
scientists took the gene for human antithrombin and
injected it directly into fertilized goat eggs.Then they
implanted the eggs in the wombs of female goats.
60When the kids were born,some of them proved to be
transgenic,the human gene nestled safely in their
cells.The researchers paired the antithrombin gene
with a promoter( which is as equence of DNA that
controls gene activity ) that is normally active in the
65goat`s mammary glands during milk production.
When the transgenic females lactated,the promoter
turned the transgene on and the goats` udders filled
with milk containing antithrombin. All that was left
to do was to collect the milk,and extract and purify
70the protein.Et voilà-human medicine! And,for
GTC,liquid gold. A Tryn hit the market in 2006,
becoming the world`s first transgenic animal drug.
Over the course of a year,the "milking parlors" on
GTC`s 300-acre farm in Massachusetts can collect
75more than a kilogram of medicine from a single

Question 22

The primary purpose of the passage is to

  • A present the background of a medical breakthrough.

  • B evaluate the research that led to a scientific discovery.

  • C summarize the findings of a long-term research project.

  • D explain the development of a branch of scientific study.

Question 23

The author`s attitude toward pharming is best described as one of

  • A apprehension.

  • B ambivalence.

  • C appreciation.

  • D astonishment.

Question 24

As used in line 20,"expert"most nearly means

  • A knowledgeable.

  • B professional.

  • C capable.

  • D trained.

Question 25

What does the author suggest about the transgenic studies done in the 1980s and 1990s?

  • A They were limited by the expensive nature of animal research.

  • B They were not expected to yield products ready for human use.

  • C They were completed when an anticoagulant compound was identified.

  • D They focus edonly on the molecular properties of cows, goats, and sheep.

Question 26

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  • A Lines 16-19("The trouble...need")

  • B Lines 25-39("Ifthey...milk")

  • C Lines 35-36("Atfirst...true")

  • D Lines 37-40("Thatall...clots")

Question 27

According to the passage, which of the following is true of antithrombin?

  • A It reduces compounds that lead to blood clots.

  • B It stems from a genetic mutation that is rare in humans.

  • C It is a sequence of DNA known as a promoter.

  • D It occurs naturally in goats` mammary glands.

Question 28

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  • A Lines 12-16("Many...more")

  • B Lines 42-44("It acts...blood stream")

  • C Lines 44-46("But as...antithrombin")

  • D Lines 62-65("The researchers...production")

Question 29

Which of the following does the author suggest about the"female goats"mentioned in line59?

  • A They secreted antithrombin in their milk after giving birth.

  • B Some of their kids were not born with the antithrombin gene.

  • C They were the first animals to receive microinjections.

  • D Their cells already contained genes usually found in humans.

Question 30

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical information in lines 63-64 is to

  • A illustrate an abstract concept.

  • B describe a new hypothesis.

  • C clarify a claim.

  • D define a term.

Question 31

The phrase"liquid gold"(line 71)most directly suggests that

  • A GTC has invested a great deal of money in the microinjection technique.

  • B GTC`s milking parlors have significantly increased milk production.

  • C transgenic goats will soon be a valuable asset for dairy farmers.

  • D A Tryn has proved to be a financially beneficial product for GTC.


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