OG Test 3 - Reading 4

Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.

A Quick Fix in a Throwaway Culture

Planned obsolescence, a practice 34at which products are designed to have a limited period of 35usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in 36austere contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable. Planned obsolescence wastes materials as well as energy in making and shipping new products. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and 37repair methods are often specialized. In 2009, an enterprising movement, the Repair Café, challenged this widely accepted belief.

[1] More like a 38fair then an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. [2] It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, 39wanting to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture. [3] Her goals were 40straightforward, however: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community. [4] Participants bring all manner of damaged articles-clothing, appliances, furniture, and more-to be repaired by a staff of volunteer specialists including tailors, electricians, and carpenters. [5] Since the inaugural Repair Café, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums. [6] While 41they await for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need. 42

Though only about 3 percent of the Netherlands` municipal waste ends up in landfills, Repair Cafés still raise awareness about what may otherwise be mindless acts of waste by providing a venue for people to share and learn valuable skills that are in danger of being lost. 43It is easy to classify old but fixable items as "junk" in an era that places great emphasis on the next big thing. In helping people consider how the goods they use on a daily basis work and are made, Repair Cafés restore a sense of relationship between human beings and material goods.

Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafés, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Café via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries 44on top of that. The original provides a central source for start-up tips and tools, as well as marketing advice to new Repair Cafés. As a result, the Repair Café has become a global network united by common ideals. Ironically, innovators are now looking back to old ways of doing things and applying them in today`s cities in an effort to transform the way people relate to and think about the goods they consume.

Question 34


  • B from which

  • C so that

  • D whereby

Question 35


  • B usefulness-

  • C usefulness;

  • D usefulness

Question 36


  • B egregious

  • C unmitigated

  • D stark

Question 37

Which choice provides information that best supports the claim made by this sentence?


  • B obsolete goods can become collectible items.

  • C no one knows whether something will fall into disrepair again.

  • D new designs often have "bugs" that must be worked out.

Question 38


  • B fair than

  • C fare than

  • D fair, then

Question 39


  • B whom wants

  • C who wanted

  • D she wanted

Question 40


  • B straightforward, therefore:

  • C straightforward, nonetheless:

  • D straightforward:

Question 41


  • B awaiting

  • C they waited

  • D waiting

Question 42

To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 5 should be placed

  • A where it is now.

  • B before sentence 1.

  • C after sentence 3.

  • D after sentence 6.

Question 43

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence.

As the number of corporate and service-based jobs has increased, the need for people who work with their hands has diminished.

Should the writer make this addition here?

  • A Yes, because it provides an example of specific repair skills being lost.

  • B Yes, because it elaborates on the statistic about the Netherlands` municipal waste.

  • C No, because it blurs the paragraph`s focus by introducing a topic that is not further explained.

  • D No, because it contradicts the claims made in the rest of the paragraph.

Question 44


  • B in addition.

  • C likewise.

  • D DELETE the underlined portion, and end the sentence with a period.


  • 34
  • 35
  • 36
  • 37
  • 38
  • 39
  • 40
  • 41
  • 42
  • 43
  • 44