## OG Test 3 - Reading 1

Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.

Librarians Help Navigate in the Digital Age

In recent years, public libraries in the United States have experienced 1reducing in their operating funds due to cuts imposed at the federal, state, and local government levels. 2However, library staffing has been cut by almost four percent since 2008, and the demand for librarians continues to decrease, even though half of public libraries report that they have an insufficient number of staff to meet their patrons needs. Employment in all job sectors in the United States is projected to grow by fourteen percent over the next decade, yet the expected growth rate for librarians is predicted to be only seven percent, or half of the overall rate. This trend, combined with the increasing accessibility of information via the Internet, 3has led some to claim that librarianship is in decline as a profession. As public libraries adapt to rapid technological advances in information distribution, librarians roles are actually expanding.

The share of library materials that is in nonprint formats 4is increasing steadily; in 2010, at least 18.5 million e-books were available 5[u]for them to circulate. As a result, librarians must now be proficient curators of electronic information, compiling, 6catalog, and updating these collections. But perhaps even more importantly, librarians function as first responders for their communities computer needs. Since one of the fastest growing library services is public access computer use, there is great demand for computer instruction. 7In fact, librarians training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods. Many of whom teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy. While these classes are particularly helpful to young students developing basic research skills, 8but adult patrons can also benefit from librarian assistance in that they can acquire job-relevant computer skills. 9Free to all who utilize their services, public libraries and librarians are especially valuable, because they offer free resources that may be difficult to find elsewhere, such as help with online job searches as well as résumé and job material development. An overwhelming number of public libraries also report that they provide help with electronic government resources related to income taxes, 10law troubles, and retirement programs.

In sum, the Internet does not replace the need for librarians, and librarians are hardly obsolete. 11Like books, librarians have been around for a long time, but the Internet is extremely useful for many types of research.

Question 1

• A NO CHANGE

• B reductions

• C deducting

• D deducts

Question 2

• A NO CHANGE

• B Consequently,

• C Nevertheless,

• D Previously,

Question 3

• A NO CHANGE

• B have

• C which have

• D which has

Question 4

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following information.

-e-books, audio and video materials, and online journals-

Should the writer make this addition here?

• A Yes, because it provides specific examples of the materials discussed in the sentence.

• B Yes, because it illustrates the reason for the increase mentioned later in the sentence.

• C No, because it interrupts the flow of the sentence by supplying irrelevant information.

• D No, because it weakens the focus of the passage by discussing a subject other than librarians.

Question 5

• A NO CHANGE

• B to be circulated by them.

• C for their circulating.

• D for circulation.

Question 6

• A NO CHANGE

• C to catalog,

Question 7

Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?

• A In fact, librarians training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods; many librarians teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy is taught by them.

• B In fact, many librarians, whose training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods, teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy.

• C Training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods; many librarians, in fact, are teaching classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy.

• D Including courses on research and Internet search methods in their training is, in fact, why many librarians teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy.

Question 8

• A NO CHANGE

• B and

• C for

• D DELETE the underlined portion.

Question 9

Which choice most effectively sets up the examples given at the end of the sentence?

• A NO CHANGE

• B During periods of economic recession,

• C Although their value cannot be measured,

• D When it comes to the free services libraries provide,

Question 10

• A NO CHANGE

• B legal issues,

• C concerns related to law courts,

• D matters for the law courts,

Question 11

Which choice most clearly ends the passage with a restatement of the writers primary claim?

• A NO CHANGE

• B Although their roles have diminished significantly, librarians will continue to be employed by public libraries for the foreseeable future.

• C The growth of electronic information has led to a diversification of librarians` skills and services, positioning them as savvy resource specialists for patrons.

• D However, given their extensive training and skills, librarians who have been displaced by budget cuts have many other possible avenues of employment.

Questions:

• 1
• 2
• 3
• 4
• 5
• 6
• 7
• 8
• 9
• 10
• 11