## OG Test 4 - Reading 4

Questions 32-41 are based on the following passage.

Passage 1 is adapted from Edmund Burke,Reflections on the Revolution in France. Originally published in 1790. Passage 2 is adapted from Thomas Paine, Rights of Man.Originally published in 1791.

Passage 1

To avoid...the evils of inconstancy and
versatility,ten thousand times worse than those of
obstinacy and the blindest prejudice, we have
Lineconsecrated the state,that no man should approach
5to look into its defects or corruptions but with due
caution; that he should never dream of beginning its
reformation by its subversion; that he should
approach to the faults of the state as to the wounds of
a father,with pious awe and trembling solicitude. By
10this wise prejudice we are taught to look with horror
on those children of their country who are prompt
rashly to hack that aged parent in pieces,and put him
into the kettle of magicians, in hopes that by their
poisonous weeds,and wild incantations,they may
15regenerate the paternal constitution, and renovate
their fathers life.
Society is indeed a contract. Subordinate contracts
for objects of mere occasional interest may be
dissolved at pleasure-but the state ought not to be
20considered as nothing better than a partnership
agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee,calico or
tobacco,or some other such low concern,to be taken
up for a little temporary interest,and to be dissolved
by the fancy of the parties. It is to be looked on with
25other reverence; because it is not a partnership in
things subservient only to the gross animal existence
of a temporary and perishable nature.It is a
partnership in all science; a partnership in all art;a
partnership in every virtue,and in all perfection.
30As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained
in many generations,it becomes a partnership not
only between those who are living, but between those
who are living,those who are dead,and those who
are to be born....The municipal corporations of
35that universal kingdom are not morally at liberty at
their pleasure,and on their speculations of a
contingent improvement, wholly to separate and tear
asunder the bands of their subordinate community,
and to dissolve it into an unsocial,uncivil,
40unconnected chaos of elementary principles.

Passage 2

Every age and generation must be as free to act for
itself,in all cases,as the ages and generations which
preceded it.The vanity and presumption of
governing beyond the grave, is the most ridiculous
45and insolent of all tyrannies.
Man has no property in man;neither has any
generation a property in the generations which are to
follow.The Parliament or the people of 1688,or of
any other period, had no more right to dispose of the
50people of the present day,or to bind or to control
them in any shape whatever, than the parliament or
the people of the present day have to dispose of,bind,
or control those who are to live a hundred or a
thousand years hence.
55Every generation is,and must be,competent
to all the purposes which its occasions require.It is
the living,and not the dead,that are to be
accommodated.When man ceases to be,his power
and his wants cease with him; and having no longer
60any participation in the concerns of this world, he
has no longer any authority in directing who shall be
its governors,or how its government shall be
Those who have quitted the world,and those who
65are not yet arrived at it,are as remote from each
other,as the utmost stretch of mortal imagination
can conceive.What possible obligation,then,can
exist between them; what rule or principle can be laid
down, that two nonentities, the one out of existence,
70and the other not in,and who never can meet in this
world,that the one should control the other to the
end of time?...
The circumstances of the world are continually
changing,and the opinions of men change also; and
75as government is for the living,and not for the dead,
it is the living only that has any right in it.That
which maybe thought right and found convenient in
one age,may be thought wrong and found
inconvenient in another.In such cases,who is to

Question 32

In Passage1,Burke indicates that a contract between a person and society differs from other contracts mainly in its

• A brevity and prominence.

• B complexity and rigidity.

• C precision and usefulness.

• D seriousness and permanence.v

Question 33

As used in line 4,"state"most nearly refers to a

• A style of living.

• B position in life.

• C temporary condition.

• D political entity.

Question 34

As used in line 22,"low"most nearly means

• A petty.

• B weak.

• D depleted.

Question 35

It can most reasonably be inferred from Passage 2 that Paine views historical precedents as

• A generally helpful to those who want to change society.

• B surprisingly difficult for many people to comprehend.

• C frequently responsible for human progress.

• D largely irrelevant to current political decisions.

Question 36

How would Paine most likely respond to Burkes statement in lines 30-34,Passage1("As the...born")?

• A He would assert that the notion of a partnership across generations is less plausible to people of his era than it was to people in the past.

• B He would argue that there are no politically meaningful links between the dead,the living,and the unborn.

• C He would question the possibility that significant changes to a political system could be accomplished within a single generation.

• D He would point out that we cannot know what judgments the dead would make about contemporary issues.

Question 37

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

• A Lines 41-43("Every...it")

• B Lines 43-45("Thevanity...tyrannies")

• C Lines 56-58("Itis...accommodated")

• D Lines 67-72("What...time")

Question 38

Which choice best describes how Burke would most likely have reacted to Paine`s remarks in the final paragraph of Passage2?

• A With approval, because adapting to new events may enhance existing partnerships.

• B With resignation, because changing circumstances are an inevitable aspect of life.

• C With skepticism, because Paine does not substantiate his claim with examples of governments changed for the better.

• D With disapproval, because changing conditions are insufficient justification for changing the form of government.

Question 39

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

• A Lines 1-4("To avoid...state")

• B Lines 7-9("he should...solicitude")

• C Lines 27-29("It is...perfection")

• D Lines 34-38("The municipal...community")

Question 40

Which choice best states the relationship between the two passages?

• A Passage 2 challenges the primary argument of Passage 1.

• B Passage 2 advocates an alternative approach to a problem discussed in Passage 1.

• C Passage 2 provides further evidence to support an idea introduced in Passage 1.

• D Passage 2 exemplifies an attitude promoted in Passage 1.

Question 41

The main purpose of both passages is to

• A suggest away to resolve a particular political struggle.

• B discuss the relationship between people and their government.

• C evaluate the consequences of rapid political change.

• D describe the duties that governments have to their citizens.

Questions:

• 32
• 33
• 34
• 35
• 36
• 37
• 38
• 39
• 40
• 41